Risk, Kenneth. “Atonement in Leviticus and Hebrews: Convergences and Divergences.” BA Honours (Biblical Studies & Theology), Tyndale University, 2022.
Leviticus describes cultic rituals within the historical context of the ancient Near East. In the biblical narrative, YHWH instructs Moses and the Levitical priesthood in various sacrificial offerings to provide atonement for violations against the covenant code between YHWH and the Israelite covenant community. The instructions they received distinguished them from contemporaneous cultic communities and established a systematic form of worship acceptable to YHWH. Levitical priests and offerings produced temporary atonement for unintentional sins; priests and offerings were co-dependent in their validity before YHWH. Blood atonement is the primary mode YHWH uses to reconcile humanity to himself. Leviticus foreshadows the detailed means of atonement fulfilled by Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ includes and transcends all Levitical atonement sacrifices. This thesis will focus on how the crucifixion of the incarnation of the Son of God fulfills the atonement models prefigured by Levitical offerings. This thesis will deepen the reader’s understanding of the relationship between Old and New Testament views of atonement. First, I will analyze changes and consistencies in ancient Near East beliefs surrounding blood sacrifice between the time of the Sinaitic events described by Leviticus and the Christological events described by the epistle to the Hebrews, with special attention to the Exodus group and tabernacle atonement theology. I will compare the atonement models presented by sacrificial animals with those provided by Christ. Detailed descriptions will provide syntheses of Levitical atonement with Christological atonement. More specifically, I will compare the atonement models in Leviticus with those presented in the epistle to the Hebrews.
After providing a theology of atonement in Leviticus and Hebrews, I will consider convergences
and divergences between Leviticus and Hebrews. In conclusion, counterarguments and final 5 results will synthesize my findings by considering how our interpretations of atonement in Leviticus change in light of Christ in Hebrews.
Thesis (BA Honours)—Tyndale University, 2022
Table of Contents
Abstract – Introduction & Methodologies – Historical-Critical Analysis of Atonement in Leviticus – Theology of Atonement in Leviticus – Theology of Atonement in Hebrews – Convergences and Divergences in Atonement from Hebrews interpreting Leviticus – Conclusions – Bibliography – Biblical References to Atonement.
Copyright, Kenneth Risk, managed by Tyndale University. All rights reserved.
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